Peopleocracy is the result of a twofold process. On the one hand, the rise of populist movements and parties; on the other hand, by contamination effect, the modification of the foundations of our democracies. Populists sacralize the sovereign people at the same time as they attack political representatives and engage in a radical critique of the institutional forms organizing this same popular sovereignty. The people are systematically valued as a homogenous entity, bearer of truth and considered as fundamentally good, as opposed to elites supposedly without national roots. This antagonism, at a time of immediate numerical speaking out, gives new vigour and a whole new dimension to the old idea of direct, even referendum, expression of the true opinion of "real people". The meaning of democracy is thus altered by tending to challenge representation and counter-powers; thus the rise of the figures, at the very least authoritarian, of the incarnation is encouraged. This work, which has had a tremendous echo in Italy, reflects from France and Italy on the emergence before our eyes of the peoplecracy.